Stages of New Building Construction
When starting your project, wouldn’t it be nice to have a general idea of where it starts and where
it finishes? Here are some important sequential steps using which you may plan your housing project in a better way and efficiently. We aim to provide you with a better understanding of
construction in a simplified manner. Depending on your specific structure, you may see variations, such as masonry work or design-build steps added. Contact us and we would be happy to answer any other questions.
Plans, Financing and Selecting a Contractor: These three points will form the base of your project, namely what are you building, who will build it, and how will you pay for it? Often the contractor you select will help guide you through the other two, but completion of all three is necessary to proceed.
Locating land for constructing building is very important. Identify the Land according to your choice. Always take the advice of an architect preferably with sound knowledge about building rules to check and verify the plot which you have in mind. The Architect should be able to guide you considering soil conditions, and the latest building rules applying to your plot of land and the type of project you wish to execute.
Verify with local authority office council whether there is any objection in building a house in that specific plot with respect to the survey no of your said plot. Also, make a point to check that your plot has no legal complications.
2. DESIGN PROCESS.
Before finding/meeting up with an architect make a rough requirement list for your project. This process should cover the basic concepts of your project, such as functionality, either commercial or residential, private or for rentals, no: of bedrooms you want, office space, where you want the parking, Garden/landscaping/Pool etc. For a family Home, you should involve your family also, ask their likes and suggestions. For commercial Projects, talk with a consultant about pros and cons of the property and its economic impact.
How much will your project cost you to realize? There has been a tremendous increase in the cost of building construction in Cameroon due to increase in materials and labor. One should always make a note on the available cash at hand and also you may approach banks for loans .in that way you come to know how much you can spare.
4. THE ARCHITECT
A good set of Building Plans will always save you more than they cost you. Talk through design goals and then fix an Architect, he will draw up schematics for consideration coupling
functionality, space layouts, finding the best furniture positioning and use of space. Recommending structural changes where this seeks to make space work better. A 2D sketch is developed, which is then further refined and made to a 3D model, you can consult with the architect and his team to develop the final 3D Model of your house as well as an elevation.
5. BUILDING PERMIT/APPROVALS
Building Projects in Cameroon require A Building Permit from the Council. Failure to obtain necessary permits may result in delay of the project, halting (or demolition) of the project, or fines. Ensuring a building permit protects both you and the contractor.
6. BUILDING CONTRACTOR
Finding a good building Contractor is the next biggest task. If you can find a good, reliable and reasonable contractor you can save your time and money. Always ask his method of working and check how reliable he is. You may visit and see some of his previous projects and speak with his previous clients if he has good credentials, technical know-how and is also good at giving a quality work output then you can consider him as your Contractor.
7. CONSTRUCTION PROCESS
∙Site Preparation — Based on the layout of your site, your contractor will likely have to
implement drainage to building code, then excavate or otherwise prepare the site for your new building. Other parts of site preparation may include laying utilities, arranging for power, water, and sanitation, constructing temporary storage facilities and removal of vegetation.
∙Temporal fence and Gates – wooden barriers should be built ideally just before
beginning major construction activities, it is to protect the site and the material stored in the storage shed, from the outside environments and from thieves.
∙Foundation: A foundation is the lower portion of building a structure that transfers its gravity loads to the earth. Foundation work is done according to drawings provided by the Architect/Engineer i.e. the size of foundation, depth, length and breadth etc. and type of foundation (Rubble Packing or Raft and beams etc.).
∙Superstructure — Super-structure is to provide support in the construction of the building as per designed plan and various members of super-structure such as columns and beams are designed to provide strength for carrying the dead load and live load expected to come on the various parts of the structure in a safe and well- distributed manner.
∙Roof — truss work roofing, Parapet walls, Decked roofs, Waterproofing coatings, Are major works involve in roofing the building and preventing leakage.
∙Electrical and Lighting – Electrical Wiring works can be done after the masonry work has been completed.
∙Plastering–Plastering work can commence after the initial lighting and electrical plumbing work has been completed. Cement plaster is generally used with 13 mm thickness and sometimes it can be of 20 mm thickness. On completion of brickwork, plastering is to be done.
∙(a) to make the building structurally strong
∙(b) to protect it from the effect of weather, and
∙(c) to give it an attractive look.
∙Initial Plumbing — Once plastering is done for bathroom walls, it is okay to start plumbing works.
∙Painting– Is done with cement primer once initial wiring work and plumbing works are done.
∙Flooring and Tiling–Flooring works can commence after the initial wiring works and primer coat is done to the interior walls. There are many types of floors according to their uses, economy and required the level of finishing. Ceramic tiles, Vitrified tiles, Clay Tiles, Granite, Marble, Wood, Epoxy flooring are some of the options you have in flooring.
∙Cabinets, Interior works, Shelves–Interior works can commence after the initial wiring works and primer coat is done to the interior walls. Cabinets, shelves and kitchen can be done using a variety of materials which are currently available in the market such as Wood, Multi-Wood, , Plywood, , Stainless steel..etc.
∙Finishing Plumbing Works – Can be done after tiling works are completed.
∙Finishing Electrical and Lighting works are done just before the application of final finishing coat of paint
∙Hardscaping and Landscaping: Landscaping both increases the aesthetic nature of your
building and makes it more accessible. Hardscaping the driveway, patio and walkways, and then the irrigation system, laying of grass bed and planting of trees, as well as outdoor lighting, to be considered.
∙Final Cleanup-There will always be debris left over from the construction process on
the interior and exterior of the home that you’ll want to have removed/cleaned. most
contractors specify that your building will be “broom clean.” Prior to occupancy, you may prefer to arrange or have your contractor arrange for a professional cleaning.
∙Finished Project And Moving In: Your building is finished! With a good contractor and proper maintenance, your investment should grow and be enjoyable for years yet to come!
Utilities, such as water, power, sewage, and communications, are often implemented in various stages throughout the building process. Water, for example, will require piping to be run from the municipal water system to the structure. Additional piping will be cast into the foundation and then extended up through the framing. Finally, your toilets, sinks and appliances will be installed during the interior portion of construction.
Inspections will be carried out at most stages of the building process by government officials, usually the same ones who require permits. Inspections may include structural, building code, utilities, electrical, etc. A final inspection will be conducted when your project is complete.
NOTE: Change Orders are how contractors communicate changes in price and/or schedule to you. Change orders typically come about in one of two ways:
∙You decide to change, add or remove part of the original design;
∙Issues arise beyond the reasonable ability of the contractor to foresee. Change orders may also arise if you choose options beyond the range of an allowance. Your contractor should present change orders to you in writing, including an estimate of the increase or decrease in time and money.